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Water mist nozzles are full cone nozzles that atomize extremely fine water droplets for fire extinguishing.

Understanding the benefits of water mist nozzles requires remembering one key piece of information: When the nozzles produce tiny water droplets that are converted to steam, they draw a lot of energy from the fire source, quickly extinguishing the fire.

The system is based on a simple physical phenomenon: a small amount of water evaporates rapidly into tiny water droplets with a large exchange surface relative to their volume. Atomization of 1 kg of water as 0.1 mm (100 micron) diameter droplets will result in a total exchange surface of approximately 20 m², enabling a very rapid evaporation process in an environment sufficiently high in temperature to supply the heat of evaporation.

How the water mist nozzle system works

In the presence of flames, water mist nozzles evaporate a large number of fine water droplets, quickly extinguishing the fire.

How are they achieved?

1 | Changes in Atmospheric Composition
The mist produced by the nozzles changes the composition of the atmosphere, so the percentage of oxygen changes. Since the combustion process requires oxygen to continue, the reduction in the amount of oxygen present will cause the fire to gradually extinguish itself.

2 | Energy exchange
Since the evaporation of water requires a lot of energy (539 kcal/kg), the evaporation of water droplets produces a powerful cooling effect that counteracts the combustion process. It cannot sustain a flame at temperatures below 1327°C.

3 | Radiant heat reduction
Water droplets surrounding the flame reduce radiant heat and prevent the fire from spreading. While this is relatively unimportant for fighting fires, it can be very useful in situations such as preventing radiant heat from increasing the rate of evaporation of liquid fuels exposed to flames.

Advantages and disadvantages of water mist nozzles

Water mist nozzles are an excellent solution for many fire suppression systems, but they are not always the best choice. Why? When to choose a water mist nozzle? When is it not appropriate? Let’s find out together!

Advantages of water mist systems

1 The water mist system uses approximately 85% less water than the sprinkler system, saving resources both economically and environmentally.

2 The amount of water used is less, which reduces the damage to items at the fire scene.

Disadvantages of water mist systems

1 The water mist nozzles may not work properly if the room temperature has not been significantly increased by the fire, such as a small fire or large volume environment.

Water mist systems require a flame to provide heat for the water droplets to evaporate. If the flame doesn’t raise the room temperature significantly, it won’t be able to generate enough water vapor.

2 Using a water mist system outdoors or in a ventilated room can be problematic because the air supplied from the outside prevents oxygen from falling below necessary levels.

If you are interested in our water mist nozzle solutions, or require individual advice, please contact us

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