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Oil Burner Nozzle Size

In the intricate world of forced combustion air burners, understanding oil burner nozzles is essential for efficient and clean operation. These vital components, when coupled with an oil pump, atomize fuel oil, enabling it to burn effectively. Let’s delve into the complexities of oil burner nozzle sizing, shedding light on their significance and the nuances behind their specifications.

Cracking the Nozzle Code

Nozzle specifications are a numerical language revealing critical information. Consider a nozzle labeled with a .75-GPM rating. This indicates it sprays 0.75 gallons of fuel oil per hour at 100 psi, a standard pressure for residential-style oil burners. The 80-degree spray angle defines the width of the spray pattern. Smaller angles create concentrated patterns, suitable for narrower, shorter burner chambers, while larger angles suit wider chambers.

The letter on the nozzle signifies the spray pattern. Delavan, a prevalent manufacturer, uses designations such as solid (B), hollow (A), and semi-solid (W). A solid nozzle ensures even distribution across the spray pattern, while a hollow one concentrates more oil on the outer ring. Semi-solid strikes a balance between the two. Although W nozzles are considered replacements for both A and B types, using the correct nozzle specified by the manufacturer is crucial for optimal performance.

Internal Anatomy

Inside the nozzle, a particle filter comprising thousands of bronze pellets filters the fuel, preventing clogs. A slotted distributor, spun by fuel pressure, increases the oil’s velocity within the nozzle. As the oil passes through a small hole/tube in the nozzle head, rapid pressure decrease causes the fuel to vaporize. This vaporized fuel, upon exiting the nozzle, mixes with air at the burner head and ignites.

Optimizing Efficiency and Nozzle Selection

Nozzle flow is measured in GPH @ 100 psi pressure. Given that one gallon of #2 fuel oil contains approximately 140,000 BTUs, a 1-GPM nozzle at 100 psi equates to a 140,000 BTU burner input. However, if you need a 1-GPM nozzle but only have a .75-GPM nozzle, increasing pump pressure above 100 psi enables the same fuel input with a smaller nozzle.

Understanding the intricacies of oil burner nozzle sizing is paramount for professionals working with combustion air burners. Armed with this knowledge, individuals can make informed choices, ensuring optimal burner performance, energy efficiency, and safety in various applications. Sharing this expertise enhances the industry’s collective knowledge, fostering a community of skilled professionals.

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